The Doctor of Philosophy is a research degree, and conducting high quality original research represents the most fundamental requirement of the degree. Research for the Ph.D. is expected to be significant in scope and to be an original contribution at the frontiers of knowledge in the field. Further, while research is conducted under the guidance of the Research Supervisor and the Dissertation Committee, Ph.D. students are expected to work independently in the conduct of their research. To develop a suitable topic and scope for their research, Ph.D. students are encouraged to discuss their ideas and interests with the faculty in IME. Ph.D. students are also encouraged to identify a faculty member to serve as their Research Supervisor and to identify a topic for their Ph.D. research as early as possible. While the student will work closely with their Research Supervisor, the student will also form a Dissertation Committee to help guide and review the research. The Dissertation Committee normally consists of a minimum of five faculty members, with at least one member outside of the CE graduate studies committee. Research for the Ph.D. culminates in the preparation of a Dissertation. The Dissertation must be approved by the Dissertation Committee.