There is no specific minimum number of courses required for the Ph.D. degree. Nonetheless, Ph.D. students are expected to take a significant number of courses to develop breadth and depth in their knowledge and to prepare them to conduct independent research. Courses should be selected by the student in consultation with their Research Supervisor and their Dissertation Committee. As a guideline, Ph.D. students in IME typically take 6 to 8 courses beyond the M.S. To guide course selection, the student should consult the list of example courses in the IME graduate major (see below).